Monday, 22 May 2017


I have observed a Crookes Radiometer on my office window sill since January 2015. Its varying speed turning paddle wheel motion, I conclude, is not driven by temperature as some theories aver - but is driven by light.

The 4 paddles are black on one side and silver on the other, attached by wires to a hollow central axle made of glass, which is balanced on a steel-needle. Inside the bulb is a vacuum - in theory - but how could I test this? Probably, variations in temperature do expand and contract the materials and so affect the speed of rotation - but the affect is undetectable to my eye, even for wide variations in temperature - from near freezing to +20C.

Variations in daylight  and torchlight (including "cold" light from LED's) have an immediate and measurable effect on the speed of rotation. Whatever light, electromagnetic radiation, consists of (mostly photons and other subatomic wavicles) these particles and waves impact the black side and drive the rotation.

This black-drive is for me counter-intuitive. I had assumed that photons would reflect off the silver-side and drive the rotation. But, I have read, and can now observe,  that the light adds to the weight of the black coating, and does not add to the weight of the silver coating, and thus pushes the paddles around. The black absorbs the light (hence it is black to our sight) while the silver bounces them away (hence it shines to our sight) - powering black-drive.

The new theory of gravity:
GRAVITY - I was given a Crookes Radiometer after explaining my theory of gravity to a friend. My theory depends on light having mass. There are several experiments that do ascribe very slight mass to light - and my Crookes Radiometer affirms this.

New Scientist - 17 June 2017 - page 33.  "Right to silence" by Stephen Battersby. 
An article on bandwidths and the whole electromagnetic - light spectrum. I still, after 60 years of puzzling, cannot visualise radio waves - wavelengths - odd little photons, electrons and so on. But, the evidence is with the experts, who in this article are the folk who divvy out the bandwidths for hundreds of practical applications - from 10 KHz (kilohertz) which have wavelengths measured in kilometres (between the tops of the waves) up to 100 GHz, which are tiny little wavelengths emitted by such things as water and carbon monoxide molecules - which enable measurements of immense galactic gas clouds, which form galaxies. From TV signals & phone signals to intergalactic Quasar signals to brainwaves in a brain scanner - ALL that we "see" and know is carried to us by these waves. And it is carried coherently, faithfully, accurately through millions of diverse mediums, across sub-atomic and universal distances - in data rich transmissions - across BLYs (billions of light-years). Read the article - its very informative. It suddenly dawned on me that that, yet again, these signals fill the universe. They are the "stuff of the universe" which inform and reform the Aether, every split-second. They have identity. They have substance. They carry the patterns of atoms and molecules. They have data. They have mass. Light has mass. As the signals attempt to penetrate the Earth - they get blocked. The deeper we delve, the fewer wavelengths we can see or hear. This is Casimir's exclusion of wavelengths (between plates). The lack of EM waves within the Earth, within the planet, while ALL waves surround our planet and solar system, and come to us from "the edge of the observable universe" (13.7 to 42.7 bly) and fill the entire universe. The pressure of such waves outside our planet is greater than the lack of pressure inside our planet. It is the push and the pull of gravity.

I guess that the waves can only be seen and heard and measured when they resonate with the crystalline  or complex structures of the elements which form matter. A crystal-set radio needs a crystal structure and tuning whisker that matches the broadcast in order to tune in to its wavelength. Does the signal exist without its receiver? I think this theory of gravity is correct.

HIGGS - Where and how does it "confer" mass to massless particles?Does it explain gravity?  

Some purple prose. A new, equally incomprehensible article by Jon Cartwright, THE HIGGS BANG, in New Scientist magazine 10 June 2017, advances my Higgs knowledge - not at all. 

"Subsequent work showed that the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism (or “Higgs mechanism,” for short) could give mass not only to weak particles, but also to electrons, quarks, and other fundamental particles. The more strongly a particle interacts with the Higgs field, the more massive it is. It’s important to note, however, that most of the mass in composite particles, like protons, nuclei, and atoms, does not come from the Higgs mechanism, but from the binding energy that holds these particles together."

MAY 2016 - CERN EXPLAINS : On 4 July 2012, the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider announced they had each observed a new particle in the mass region around 126 GeV. This particle is consistent with the Higgs boson predicted by the Standard Model. The Higgs boson, as proposed within the Standard Model, is the simplest manifestation of the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism. Other types of Higgs bosons are predicted by other theories that go beyond the Standard Model.

On 8 October 2013 the Nobel prize in physics (link is external) was awarded jointly to Fran├žois Englert and Peter Higgs "for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider."

I have read about 100 explanations and descriptions of The Higgs,  attended a lecture at the Royal Society given by 4 CERN professors, and exchanged emails with the speakers. None of this has conveyed to me how it works. I am tempted to quote Einstein "If  you cannot explain it simply - you have not understood it well enough". The Physics Forum tutor below destroys any hope that understanding of the Higgs might be accessible to ordinary humble bumbling humans, telling us that we must first learn to speak pure-physics-mathematics, which takes decades. From 2008 I attended 3 years of particle and astrophysics evening classes - and just about coped with the maths homework - and I have read about these topics for more than 50 years. I am beginning to suspect that The Higgs and other impenetrable "Standard Model" descriptions might fall into the group of topics which my arithmetically astute, cynical father defined as "Bullshit Baffles Brains".
At what point does immersing  a student in incomprehensible maths-language, used by a handful of highly specialised isolated souls who cannot put their ideas into words, become a cult that employs intensive brain-washing?  
From what I have gleaned about The Higgs Bosun, The Higgs Field and The Higgs Mechanism - they do not create or explain mass or gravity. They do not explain how "straw is spun into gold" to make matter. 

I don't feel like you'll make much headway into this just by asking a few questions about random topics that you've read concerning the higgs field and mass. So far, it seems like members are spending more time correcting your misunderstandings than explaining the subject. You need to learn a lot more of the very basics of quantum mechanics, quantum field theory, and several other topics before you'll be able to grasp exactly what is happening. Most importantly, remember that our theories are primarily math based and any attempt to "translate" it into common language is almost certain to fail. Without knowing how to read the math, it's unlikely you'll get very far. Unfortunately this is not an easy task. People spend years in college learning both the math and the theories.





13 April 2016 - Propelled by light from a laser beam on Earth, a feather-weight Breakthrough Starshot craft is being designed to go on a 40 trillion km, 20 year flight to Alpha Centauri, at 1/5th light-speed; 60,000 km per second. BREAKTHROUGH FOUNDATION

In 1901, various labs measured light-pressure

LIGHT HAS MASS - “…The final measurement was the most accurate ever recorded, and the calculated pressure deviated just ten percent from Maxwell’s theoretical value of 4.7 x 10-6 N/m2. This disparity was well within the experimental error”  
(N stands for Newtons, used in gravity calculations – being 102 grams, the weight of a small apple – 0.0000047N spread over one square-metre is pretty small)

More about mass for light. My Crookes Radiometer is on a north facing window-sill, which also gets reflected light from a south facing white wall of a house about 50 metres distant. Last night I left the window open when the temperature dropped to 1C. The windowsill, room and Radiometer were chilled. Yet, as the sun rose the Radiometer revolved as it usually does in this room when heated to 20C. After 4 months of such observations, I conclude that the spinning paddle is driven by light, not heat, and the spin speeds up and slows down immediately with the intensity of the light; irrespective of temperature. The Radiometer paddle is being moved by the mass of light, with the black side driving. Light has mass.

(PS -  I have just read this might be a Nichols Radiometer, driven by light. It is argued that Crookes Radiometer is driven by bouncing gas molecules - i.e. heat) 


Radiation pressure is the pressure exerted upon any surface exposed to electromagnetic radiation. Radiation pressure implies an interaction between electromagnetic radiation and bodies of various types, including clouds of particles or gases. The interactions can be absorption, reflection, or some of both (the common case). Bodies also emit radiation and thereby experience a resulting pressure.
The forces generated by radiation pressure are generally too small to be detected under everyday circumstances; however, they do play a crucial role in some settings, such as astronomy and astrodynamics. For example, had the effects of the sun's radiation pressure on the spacecraft of the Viking program been ignored, the spacecraft would have missed Mars orbit by about 15,000 kilometers.[1]
This article addresses the macroscopic aspects of radiation pressure. Detailed quantum mechanical aspects of interactions are addressed in specialized articles on the subject. The details of how photons of various wavelengths interact with atoms can be explored through links in the See also section.
Solar sails[edit]
Main article: Solar sail
Solar sailing, an experimental method of spacecraft propulsion, uses radiation pressure from the Sun as a motive force. The idea of interplanetary travel by light was mentioned by Jules Verne in From the Earth to the Moon.
A sail reflects about 90% of the incident radiation. The 10% that is absorbed is radiated away from both surfaces, with the proportion radiated from the unlit surface depending on the thermal conductivity of the sail. A sail has curvature, surface irregularities, and other minor factors that affect its performance.
The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has successfully unfurled a solar sail in space which has already succeeded in propelling its payload with theIKAROS project.

Cosmic effects of radiation pressure[edit]

The misapprehension is the statement light has no mass. The true statement is "a photon has no mass" .
Two photons can very well carry a mass, the measure of the added four vectors. There exists an invariant mass even for mass less particles, this is for two photons with an angle theta in their direction of motion:
And this is just for two photons. An electromagnetic wave will always diverge, there is a 1/r**2 (laser light diverges less) fall in the energy density of the wave, and there will be angles between the multitude of photons. Thus an electromagnetic wave can be characterized by a total mass, but that has nothing to do with information of course. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle will also ensure that there will always be some divergence.

SPACE SHIP DRIVE - There are several space vehicles being built that will be driven by solar-winds adding energy to giant ultra-lightweight sails; including the Starshot Spacecraft (see link above).

FINALLY - Science fiction has often inspired, predated and predicted breakthroughs in science fact. So I leave you with my Space Chimney Drive, also using light, that drives a "flying saucer" from Earth to the edge of our solar system. It is based on today's science - and it is useful to remind ourselves that such emerging science-ideas or fantasy could lead Mankind to Boldly Go. 

CHAPTER 29:  Journey into Space.

The Citizens were herded to a circular seating area with viewing screens.

“Very briefly” announced a young woman who had taken over from Samba who was now fifty yards away huddled with a group around bafflingly complex control panels, “…I’ll give you an outline of the flight we’re taking together and – very, very briefly – how The Queen works.”

As she started speaking the clearest pictures they had yet experienced flashed up on the guests’ inner PC screens – and on the display screens.

“…The Queen is solar powered. Powered by starlight. Every square centimetre of surface absorbs light, the electromagnetic field, and converts it to electricity…”

Illustrations of light being captured by solar cells converting at eighty-two percent efficiency accompanied the lecture.

“…the craft is a Space-Chimney… For the Concorde Survivor’s understanding I’ll describe it…”

EmmSon nodded at Sebastian, confirming that he was right and Sebastian wrong.

“…The rim of the Queen spins on frictionless vacuum bearings at sixty-thousand kilometres a second…”

The illustration showed the fat outside rim starting to rotate and getting up to speed so rapidly that it moved faster then the eye could follow and became a blur.

“In the atmosphere, with variable geometry blades, it acts like a helicopter wing. The rotation lifts the Queen upwards – not of course strong enough to get her off the ground at any speed, but you’ll see its ability to effectively make the craft weightless and lift it in Earth’s lower atmosphere…”

Complicated wind tunnel tests showed the rim sprouting short turbine blades and spinning in smoky spirals, which any flight engineer would recognise as evidencing lift. Joe was interested to see that the Citizens were fascinated. They obviously hadn’t seen this before.

The young woman continued at a fast pace “…The rim is also the main space drive – when we switch the chimney on…”

“…on the top of the rim are laser beams placed close together so that when its rotating a seamless column of coherent light – the chimney – beams upwards…”

A graphic of a disk with separate lights at its rim shining fiercely out into space was flashed on screen.

“…The beams are magnetically polarised to attract all and any particles within the chimney to the “walls” of light. This creates an internal vacuum relative to the external pressure and the chimney effect is created.”

“…under The Queen, the rim has lasers that form a cone of light which is polarised the opposite way – to attract particles making the zone beneath the ship of a higher pressure than the ambient external pressure – and far higher than the vacuum in the chimney above.”

“The Chimney reaches out without losing its focus or polarity for a quarter of a million miles. So the “top” of the chimney is about as far away as the Moon. Any questions so far?” she challenged her audience, impatient to get this over with. No-one dared to delay the presentation.


“…Hence the concept of a smoke-stack chimney which joins the high pressure ground air with the lower pressure air at its top, creating an upward flow. Burning fuel at the bottom increases the flow as the warmed air is less dense. The Queen’s lasers do the same job but instead of air flow, what sits in the chimney is the space-craft itself…”

She surveyed her small audience waiting, impatiently, for the penny to drop. She made minute hand movements indicating they should as soon as possible, as soon as their limited intellects caught up, see the point. All around them people were bustling and making ready – and she, a co-pilot, was anxious to get to her station.

“Ah!” rejoined David AA, to everyone’s relief, “The Queen herself is equivalent to the airflow and rises up the chimney…”     “Low pressure above and high below…   But…” he added with some bravery as their rapid fire tutor was not inviting any detours, “…how do you steer it? The Queen, doesn’t it just go straight up The …Chimney … In Smoke… as it were?” and he grinned sheepishly in case he had asked a totally dumb question.

His momentary fear was quickly alleviated, “Good question…” she praised him – and more graphics flashed onto the screens, “A very good question. Now you see why The Queen is saucer shaped. We point the laser-chimney at our destination, which can be near or far. Wherever we point the lasers, the craft must follow…”

David AA looked pleased with himself and all his colleagues gave themselves a pat on the back for concentration and alertness.

“…The Queen has to be shaped so that when the laser-chimney is fired at an acute angle it doesn’t intersect the ship’s superstructure – otherwise BOOM! It would disintegrate all the particles within the chimney – and end of story! end of us all and end of The Queen.  …So its saucer shaped.”

Sebastian smiled triumphantly at EmmSon in an utterly childish “I-told-you-so” retaliation.

“…And finally,” said the young tutor already moving away from them “…once in the chimney we are subject to constant acceleration – so, as Einstein figured out, we get gravity beneath our feet…until we decelerate. When we approach a planet, we reverse the polarities above and below; and it slows us down. Now I really must go. Enjoy your flight – see you later.”

Though the latter was so obviously not her intention they ignored it.

EmmSon, less cowed than the rest by this fast talking, dismissive informant, called after her “But – hey! Hey Miss – But where are we going?”

She stopped and turned, with a look which would make a lesser man tremble. This co-pilot was not to be trifled with. Without taking a single step back to them she flashed up a diagram on the screens, “There. We’re going there. And then we’re coming back again – all in thirty-six hours…  …If we ever get off the ground” she admonished. “Got it?”

They all nodded obediently. Eloise had to admire the mind-power of this young woman and wondered if she might one day decide to train in the Mind-Warrior art.

The diagrams and recorded explanations showed that The Queen was about to take them ten to the power of six Earth-radii – sixty-billion kilometres, to the Kuiper Belts at the edge of the Solar System. Light from the Sun would take an hour to reach those frozen wastes, just beyond the orbits of Pluto and Neptune. The Queen would travel there, taking the long route, sling-shotting round the Sun, to rendezvous with the Earth’s most distant scientific satellite, in fifteen hours, at an average speed of twenty-thousand kilometres a second or seventy-two million kilometres an hour; its maximum speed being almost twice that to allow for acceleration and deceleration to align with the satellite’s speed.


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